Design for Future Needs [report]

design-the-future

Abstract

Designers look into the future to meet people’s needs. Design for Future Needs is a research project discovering how their methods can help policy makers do the same. The project, run for the European Commission by a group of European design and business organisations, has researched how design techniques for envisioning the future can benefit EC decision-makers ’ foresight planning and policy work. The project is aiming to help them respond to emerging issues and trends from environmental pressures to technological change. Copies of this abridged report and the full detailed report, along with other information on the Scoping Study findings, the Future Perfect Conference, and the National Design and Foresight Seminars can be found on the Design for Future Needs website: http://www.dffn.org Contract number: HPV1-CT-2001-60038

Source: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.135.2534

Design for Future Needs overview

Introduction

Foresight and design are both activities that aim to imagine the future. Both are employed
for social and commercial benefit, helping to prepare people and companies for change.
However, these activities traditionally call upon separate professional disciplines and areas
of expertise which tend to work in rather different ways.

The purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to explore the support that each activity—design and
Foresight—gives presently and could give in future to the other. Lessons learnt from this
study could improve business strategy and policy-making.

(…)

Full report:
Design_for_Future_Needs.pdf
Alternative link: http://bit.ly/1x8HNnj

Table of contents
Design for Future Needs overview . 6
Introduction . 6
The purpose of the study . 6
What is Foresight? . 6
What is design? . 6
How they could support each other . 7
The range of design methods. 7
Four case studies. 8
Key findings. 9
Recommendations for. 11
Next steps . 15
Commonalities and differences in design and Foresight . 16
Introduction . 16
The world is a [mediated] project . 16
Why is product design a relevant case of foresight [in action]? . 18
Differences between strategic design and foresight . 20
A few words on design methods . 22
Conclusions . 24
Connections and opportunities between design and Foresight . 27
Introduction . 27
Foresight . 28
Models of Foresight Methodology . 30
Design . 31
The relationship between design process and Foresight . 36
The contribution of Foresight thinking to Design . 47
The contribution of Design to Foresight . 49
Where next? . 51
Appendices. 53
Glossary of Design Methods Relevant to Foresight Activities . 54
Scoping Study . 63
Design Future Thinking Survey . 64
The Questionnaire . 65
Analysis . 68
Designing in a flow: incremental change . 76
Conclusion . 77
List of examples. 78
Case Study 1: BAA Plc Heathrow Airport, Terminal 5 . 80
Introduction . 81
Background . 82
Design and Development Process . 84
2020 Vision: A view from the future . 85
Sharing the vision . 88
Owning the vision . 90
Implementing and protecting the vision . 91
Design and foresight . 92
Conclusions . 96
Case Study 2: Humantec ‘Reflexive Spaces’ . 100
1. Project description . 101
1.1 Why Humantec? . 101
1.2 Project summary . 101
1.3 Background . 102
1.4 Context (A): reflexive spaces . 103
1.5 Context (B): business strategy . 103
2. Methodology and process . 105
2.1 Summary . 105
2.2 Expert statements . 105
2.3 Identification of key drivers . 107
2.4 Scenario evaluation . 109
3. Results and findings . 109
3.1 Scenario deliverables . 109
3.2 The scenario process . 110
4. Conclusions . 110
4.1 The role of scenarios . 110
4.2 Participatory design processes . 111
4.3 Visualisation, simulation and prototyping . 111
4.4 The benefits of backcasting . 112
4.5 The tacit dimension . 113
4.6 The role of education and research . 113
Appendix (a) . 115
Critical factors in scenario-thinking and planning . 115
Appendix (b) . 117
Benefits of ‘visually mediated scenarios’ . 117
Case Study 3: Whirlpool “Project F” . 120
Creating Imaginable Futures: Using Design Strategy as a Foresight Tool . 121
Introduction: How is design relevant to planning for the future? . 121
Project F: a research project and design experiment . 122
Whirlpool’s shift to user-centred design . 123
Design research: quantitative and qualitative . 124
Eliciting tacit knowledge and latent needs . 125
How does design synthesise solutions from research? . 126
How do we translate research into design? . 128
From design ideas to 3-D prototypes . 128
Imaginable futures stimulate internal discussion . 129
Communication of the prototypes . 131
Design embodiments stimulate internal discussion about strategy . 135
From design to implementation: a ‘call to action’ . 135
How could Whirlpool Europe have gained more from Project F? . 136
Design as a foresight tool . 137
References . 138
Appendix: . 138
Case study 4: Decathlon . 140
Executive Summary . 141
Introduction . 141
Why Decathlon? . 142
Decathlon profile: Milestones in the history of Decathlon . 143
Strategic evolution: From Distribution to Design . 143
New Organisation of Design activities at Decathlon .144
Prospective Design at Decathlon: the Imaginew programme . 145
Specificity of prospective design and Interest for the European Commission . 151
Design prospective specificities . 151
Conclusion . 153
Future Perfect Conference . 156
Introduction and Welcome . 157
Looking to the Future . 157
How does design shape the future? . 158
Introduction to the Design for Future Needs project . 159
Design in the context of Foresight . 159
The results of the scoping exercise . 160
Case Study 1 – the Power of Experience (Project F at Whirlpool) . 162
Insight on the ‘Project F’ Case Study – a Q&A session . 164
Case Study 2 – the Power of Diversity . 165
Design, Future and Sustainability . 167
Insight on the first two case studies . 168
Resumé of Day 1 – Dr. Keith Lawrence . 169
Case Study 3 – “The Power of Leadership”. 169
Case Study 4 – “The Power of Teamwork”. 172
Paraskevas Caracostas – taking stock of the conference to-date . 174
Connecting with the future . 174
Panel discussion and conclusions . 176
National Design and Foresight Seminars . 180
1) London 18 February 2003 . 180
Group Discussions . 180
2) Helsinki 21 February 2003 . 185
Related Readings List . 189
Project Partners . 191

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